Factors that Affecting Total Export of PTTM’s Cigar to US

Main Article Content

Musaiyadi Musaiyadi


This paper aim to analyze how far is the effect of the economic variables which are the average price of PTTM's cigar export, the exchange rate of Rupiah against US Dollar, GSP of Ohio USA, toward the export of PTTM's total cigars in USA. By using quarterly data from 1996.1 to 2013.3 on ECM, this research finds out: (1) the average price of PTTM's cigars Export is significantly statistically influenced export of PTTM's total cigars in USA positively. (2) Exchange rate of Rupiah against USD is significantly statistically influences export of total PTTM's cigars in USA positively. (3) GSP of Ohio USA is significantly statistically influenced by export total of PTTM's cigars in USA positively. (4) All of those independent variables significant statistically and simultaneously influences export total PTTM's cigars in USA positively. From this results of study, this model significantly statistically influences the export of PTTM 's total cigars to USA. Because of the coefficient of average price of PTTM's cigars, export is positive-elastic, PTTM must increase the cigar price in USA. And, two other coefficient variables in this model can be used as consideration for PTTM in adapting its marketing mix programs in the USA market.

Article Details



Aliman, (2000), Applied Econometrics Module, PAU ECONOMIC STUDY, Gadjah Mada University, Jogjakarta
Asian Development Bank, (2000), Asian and Pacific Countries Keys Indicators of Developing, Oxford University Press, Oxford
Beth V. Yarbrough and Robert M. Yarbrough (2000), The World Economy - Trade and Finance, Harcourt College Publisher, USA
BPS, Economic Indicators, various publications
Crockett, Roger O. and Elstrom, Peter (1997), How Motorola Lost Its Way, Additional Material from Business Week, USA
Dietz, Robert D, and Malecki, Edward J., (2002), A Report on the Economic Conditions of Ohio, Prepared for the Consulate of Detroit Foreign Ministry, Center for Urban and Regional Analysis - The Ohio State University Columbus, www. google.com
Erika Yuda, (2002), Analysis of International Marketing Strategy: A Case Study of PT AND LIRIS Solo Indonesia, Thesis, Master of Management, Gadjah Mada University, Jogjakarta
Gujarati, Damodar (1995), Basic Econometrics, McGraw-Fill, Inc. USA
Hady, Hamdy, (1998), International Economics - Theory and Policy of International Trade, Second Book, Ghalia Indonesia, IKAPI, Jakarta
Http: www.bea.doc.gov/bea/rels.htm
Indocommercial, (1999), The Cigarette Industry Oligopoly Process Runs Fast, No 253, October 11, 1999
Insukindro, (1991), Lancung Linear Regression in Economic Analysis: An Overview with One Case Study in Indonesia, JEBI, FE UGM, Jogjakarta
Insukindro, (1993), Selection of Empirical Economic Model with Error Correction Approach, JEBI, FE UGM, Jogjakarta
Insukindro, Aliman, (1999), Selection and Form of Empirical Model Functions: A Case Study of Real Currency Demand in Indonesia, JEBI, UGM, Jogjakarta
Kuncoro, Mudrajad (1999), Indonesia Clove Cigarete Industry: SCP and Cluster Analysis, The 5TH IRSA INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE, Bandung
Kotabe, Masaaki, and Helsen, Kristiaan (2004), Global Marketing Management, Wiley International Edition, Third Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., USA
Krugman, Paul R and Obstfeld, Maurice (1999), International Economic: Theory and Policy, HarperCollins Publisher. Fifth edition, USA
Philip R. Cateora and John L. Graham (2002) International Marketing, McGraw-Hill International Edition
Phillip Kotler, (2003), Marketing Management, United State of America: New Jersey, Prentice Hall. Inc
Porter, Michael E., (2000). Competitive Advantage - Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, The Free Press, New York
Ronald VA Sprout and James H. Weaver, (1993), Exports and Economic Growth in a Simultaneous Equations Model, The Journal of USA Development Areas
Rugman, Alan M, et al (1987), International Business: Firm and Environment, McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, USA
Suandy Hamid, Edy, (1997), Direction of Shifting Indonesian Economy to Free Markets - Agenda for Economic and Political Liberalization Action in Indonesia - PPM, FE UII, PT Tiara Wacana, Jogjakarta
Suandy Hamid, Edy and Anto, MB Hendrie (1997), Indonesian Development Economics Study , JEP, FE. UII, Jogjakarta
Taru Martani 1918, (2004), Cigar Van Java, Jogjakarta
Thomson, Strickland (2003), Strategic Management (Concepts and Cases), Thirteenth Edition, United State of America, McGraw-Hill Irvin
World Bank, (1996), The East Asian Miracle - Economic Growth and Public Policy, Fourth Printing, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Yoffie, David B. and Casseres, Benjamin G. (1994), International Trade and Competition: Cases and Notes in Strategy and Management, Second Edition, McGRAW-HILL INTERNATIONAL EDITIONS, USA